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Anatomy of the testes

The testes (testicles) are the male gonads, that is; they are the primary male reproductive organs. They fulfil two key functions, the production of gametes (sperm) and the secretion of hormones, particularly the male hormone testosterone. Other structures in the male...

Sweating (perspiration)

Sweating is the primary mechanism by which the human body regulates its temperature. Sweat is a clear, odourless solution secreted by sweat glands. Some 4 million sweat glands are distributed throughout the human skin.
Illustration of human digestive system

Urinary tract

The function of the urinary system is to remove waste products from the body, regulate water and salt balance, and to store and transport urine. The urinary system is divided into upper and lower sections. The upper urinary system is made up of the kidneys and ureter,...
Pregnancy stages collage

1 week pregnant: The last menstrual period

Pregnancy week by week: Week 1 of the 40 weeks of gestation begins with the last menstrual period. The menstrual cycle has two components: the ovarian cycle and the uterine cycle. Both of these components are coordinated by the hormonal changes taking place within the body. They...
Pregnancy stages collage

2 weeks pregnant: Ovulation

If you are planning to fall pregnant, the best time to have intercourse is around the period of ovulation. Ovulation refers to the release of the egg from the ovary, and occurs at the end of week 2 of the menstrual cycle.
Pregnancy stages collage

3 weeks pregnant: The beginning of human development

Pregnancy week by week: By week 3 of the 40 weeks of gestation, the uterus has finished regenerating and is now entering the secretory phase, which will provide the ideal environment for implantation (embedding of the fertilised egg into the uterus) should fertilisation occur.
woman no sleep, insomnia

Sleep physiology

What happens when we sleep? Sleep is a state of reduced awareness and responsiveness. In humans, sleep is also associated with reduced movement. Sleep consists of two different phases: rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-REM or slow wave sleep.
Doctor with shoulder model

Anatomy of the shoulder (glenohumeral joint/scapulo-thoracic joint)

The shoulder comprises bones, ligaments, tendons and muscles that connect the arms to the torso. The shoulder has two joints that work together to allow arm movement.


Testosterone is one of a group of hormones known as androgens. It is the primary sex hormone produced by males but is also produced by females.
Young man laughing

Oral mucosa

The oral mucosa is the "skin" inside the mouth, and it covers most of the oral cavity apart from the teeth. Its main purpose is to act as a barrier and protect the deeper tissues.