|Cancer, a condition of abnormal cell growth, is the second most common cause of death in developed countries. Normal cell growth is a carefully regulated process. Cancer cells replicate in an uncontrolled manner, and can move from one part of the body to another.|
For more information,see Cancer: Overview.
Anatomy of the renal system
|The kidneys are bean-shaped organs which help the body produce urine to get rid of unwanted waste substances. When urine is formed, tubes called ureters transport it to the urinary bladder, where it is stored and excreted via the urethra. The kidneys are also important in controlling our blood pressure and producing red blood cells.|
For more information, see Anatomy of the Renal System
Renal cell carcinoma
|Renal cell carcinoma is the most common form of cancer that originates in the kidney. It occurs due to the mutation of cells in the kidney’s filtering system. Renal cell carcinoma often has few symptoms, so may be diagnosed quite late, and tend to spread to other organs quite early.|
For more information, see Renal Cell Carcinoma.
Types of kidney cancer
|There are many types of renal (kidney) cell cancers (RCCs). Each type of tumour is derived from a different cell type within the kidney and has its own distinct characteristics.|
For more information, see Types of Kidney Cancer.
Genetic typing of cancers
|Individuals that inherit a genetic mutation from their parents are at a greater risk of certain types of cancers. Familial cancer syndromes are the group of cancers where patients inherit genes that do not function properly, increasing the risk of developing cancer.|
For more information, see Genetic Typing of Cancers.
Treatments for kidney cancer
|Available treatments for RCC depend on the degree of advancement. Localised RCCs (confined to the kidney) can be cured with surgery; however, surgery for metastatic clear cell RCC cannot cure RCC but still offers some survival benefit.|
For more information, see Treatments for Kidney Cancer.
|Nephrectomy refers to the surgical removal of a kidney. It is indicated for conditions such as kidney stones, kidney cancer, polycystic kidney disease (PKD), renal tuberculosis, chronic pyelonephritis, dysplastic kidney and hypertension (high blood pressure).|
For more information, see Nephrectomy.
Biological therapy (Biotherapy)
|Biological therapy, or biotherapy, immunotherapy or biological response modifiers, are gaining increasing prominence as anti-cancer agents. They may be used either alone or in combination with traditional anti-cancer treatments such as chemotherapy.|
For more information, see Biological therapy (Biotherapy).