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Metronidazole Intravenous Infusion (Baxter)

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Generic Name: Metronidazole
Product Name: Metronidazole Intravenous Infusion (Baxter)

Indication

Metronidazole Intravenous Infusion is used to treat serious infections caused by anaerobic bacteria or protozoa (see Action Description for full list) when oral administration is impossible or not appropriate. The intravenous preparation can also be used when oral administration is possible but immediate anti-microbial action is required. Intravenous Metronidazole can also be used during surgery (eg: appendicectomy, colonic surgery, vaginal hysterectomy) for prevention of wound contamination with anaerobic organisms.
In the treatment of any infection, it is important to isolate the infective organism and its anti-microbial susceptibilities if possible before commencing treatment.

Action

Metronidazole is an antibiotic agent with activity against anaerobic (non-oxygen using) bacteria and protozoa. It kills anaerobic bacteria by a mechanism thought to be interfering with the production of DNA. Anaerobic bacteria susceptible to Metronidazole include:
– Bacteroides fragilis
– other Bacteroids spp.
– Fusobacterium
– Eubacterium
– Clostridium
– anaerobic Streptococci
Disease-causing protozoa that are killed by Metronidazole include:
– Trichomonas vaginalis
– other trichomonads
– Entamoeba histolytica
– Giardia Lamblia
– Balantidium coli
– causative organisms of active ulcerative gingivitis

Dose advice

Metronidazole Intravenous Infusion requires no dilution and should not be mixed with any other drugs prior to administration. Concurrent administration of other antibiotics is safe, as long as a separate site is used.
Adults
– infuse 500mg eight-hourly at a rate of 5ml/minute
– maximum dose is 4g/24-hour period
– treatment for 7 days should be sufficient for most patients, but treatment can be extended, especially for cases where re-infection is likely
– for surgical prophylaxis, administration shortly before surgery should be followed by 8-hourly doses for the next 24 hours
– oral administration should be substituted as soon as practicable
Children
– children older than 12: see Adult dosing
– children under the age of 12: 7.5mg/kg eight-hourly at a rate of 5ml/minute
– oral administration should be substituted as soon as practicable
Hepatic dysfunction
– dose reduction may be required in patients with reduced ability to metabolise Metronidazole due to liver impairment
Renal dysfunction
– accumulation of metabolites has been found to occur in patients with renal impairment
– dosage adjustment may be required to avoid unpleasant side effects
In certain infections involving abscess formation, the role of adjunctive surgical drainage is very important.

Schedule

S4

Common side effects

– rash
– nausea
– loss of appetite
– furry tongue
– dry mouth
– abdominal discomfort
– inflammation of the tongue and oral cavity (this may be associated with Candida overgrowth and can be effectively treated)

Uncommon side effects

– vertigo
– tinnitus
– inflammation of the vein used for infusion (pain, redness, swelling at the site)
– hives, itching skin
– flushing
– vomiting
– diarrhoea
– reduction in white blood cell count ¡V reversible with withdrawal of drug
– joint pains
– nasal congestion

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For further information talk to your doctor.

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Dates

Posted On: 22 July, 2003
Modified On: 1 January, 1970


Created by: myVMC