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Amoxycillin BC

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Generic Name: Amoxycillin trihydrate
Product Name: Amoxycillin BC

Indication

Used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by pathogens susceptible to amoxicillin, including respiratory tract infections, urogenital tract infections and skin & connective tissue infections.

Action

Amoxicillin is a broad spectrum antibiotic with similar bactericidal activity to ampicillin. It acts by inhibiting cell wall mucopeptide biosynthesis. It is active against both Gram positive and negative pathogens, including P.mirabilis, H.influenzae, alpha & beta haemolytic Streptococci, S.pneumoniae, S.faecalis, non-penicilliase producing Staphylococci, N.gonorrhoea, N.meningitidis. However, some organisms are only susceptible to amoxicillin at concentrations achieved in the urine, and gonococci strains relatively resistant to benzylpenicillin are likely to be resistant to amoxicillin. Amoxicillin is not active against Pseudomonas sp; Klebsiella sp; Enterobacter sp; indole positive Proteus; Seratia marcescencs, Citrobacter, penicillinase producing gonococci or H.influenzae. E.coli strains are increasingly becoming resistant to amoxicillin in vitro. Amoxicillin is well absorbed from the gut, even in the presence of food, and readily distributes to most body tissues and fluids, except non inflamed brain and spinal fluid. Peak serum levels are achieved 1-2 hours after administration (doses of 250 mg and 500 mg have peak levels of 5.0 and 6.6-10.8 microgram/mL respectively) and amoxicillin has a mean half life of 61.3 minutes in patients with normal renal function, and up to 16-20 hours in the absence of renal function. Elimination can be delayed by concomitant probenecid administration. Amoxicillin is excreted mainly via the urine where it exists in a high concentration as unchanged drug and penicilloic acid.

Dose advice

Oral and Parenteral: Upper respiratory tract infections; genitourinary tract infections; skin & connective tissue infection: Adults: 250 mg every 8 hours. 500 mg every 8 hours may be used in severe infections or those caused by less susceptible organisms.Children (<20 kg): 20 mg/kg/day in equally divided doses, every 8 hours. 40 mg/kg/day may be used in severe infections or those caused by less susceptible organisms. Lower respiratory infections: Adults: 500 mg every 8 hours. Children: 40 mg/kg/day in equally divided doses, every 8 hours. Urethritis, gonococcal: Adults: 3 g as a single dose. Acute, uncomplicated lower urinary tract infections: Non-pregnant adult females: 3 g as a single dose. Endocarditis prophylaxis for patients undergoing dental procedures (including extraction, scaling or surgery involving gingival tissues) who are not having general anaesthetic, and have not received a penicillin in the previous month: Adults: 3 g orally, one hour before the procedure. A second dose may be given six hours later if needed. Children (<10 years): half adult dose. (<5 years): one quarter of adult dose. Dosages in patients with renal impairment: With Renal impairment antibiotic excretion will be delayed, and dose may need to be reduced according to the level of impairment.

Common side effects

Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea

Uncommon side effects

Headache, fatigue, glossitis, stomatitis, fever, joint pain. Pseudomembranous colitis, haemorrhagic colitis, intestinal candidiasis. Hypersensitivity reactions (erythematous maculopapular & urticarial rashes, fever, joint pain, erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson sydrome, exfoliative dermatitis, angioneurotic oedema) Moderate elevations of serum transaminases. Superficial tooth discolouration has been very rarely reported in children.

For further information talk to your doctor.

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Dates

Posted On: 2 September, 2004
Modified On: 1 January, 1970


Created by: myVMC