- Early detection of prostate cancer
- Digital rectal examination
- Genetic typing of cancers
- Grading Prostate Cancer: The Gleason Score
- PSA testing
- Tool: PSA calculator
Early detection of prostate cancer
|Many prostate cancers will not actually progress sufficiently to cause harm in a man’s lifetime. For this reason, prostate cancer detection is done on an individual basis, taking into account each man’s risk factors. Men above the age of 60, or those with a strong family history, may choose to be screened by their general practitioner.|
For more information, see Early Detection of Prostate Cancer.
Digital rectal examination (DRE)
|A digital rectal examination (DRE) is an important element of a clinical examination, performed by a doctor or nurse. It is a direct examination of the rectum and nearby organs, including the anal canal, prostate and bladder. While it can be uncomfortable, a DRE is critical to identifying illnesses such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostatitis (infection of the prostate), haemorrhoids, anal fissures, prostate cancer and anal and rectal cancers.|
For more information, see Digital Rectal Examination.
Genetic typing of cancers
|Individuals that inherit a genetic mutation from their parents are at a greater risk of certain types of cancers. Familial cancer syndromes are the group of cancers where patients inherit genes that do not function properly, increasing the risk of developing cancer.|
For more information, see Genetic Typing of Cancers.
The Gleason score
|The Gleason system is the most widely used system of grading prostate cancer. A Gleason score can be calculated from a sample of prostate tissue, such as in needle biopsies, core biopsies or surgically removed prostate tissue (such as in a radical prostatectomy). Treatments for prostate cancer, such as radiotherapy or hormonal therapy can alter the growth patterns and therefore change the Gleason score. As a result, Gleason scores are generally only calculated before treatment is started.|
For more information, see Grading Prostate Cancer: The Gleason Score.
|Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is a protein that is produced by the cells of the prostate gland and enters the bloodstream. A range of disorders involving the prostate cause its cells to produce more PSA. This raised amount of PSA can then be measured with a blood test.|
For more information, see Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) Testing.
Tool: PSA calculator
For more information on prostate cancer, including diagnoses, types of treatments, and some useful tools, videos and animations, see Prostate Cancer.