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Generic Name: Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride
Product Name: Ciprofloxacin-BC


Used for the treatment of infections caused by pathogens susceptible to Ciprofloxacin.

Including: Urinary tract infections; gonorrhoeal urethritis and cervicitis, gastroenteritis, bronchial infections, skin and connective tissue infections, bone and joint infections, and chronic bacterial prostatitis.

Used for post-exposure treatment of inhalational anthrax


Ciprofloxacin is a synthetic, broad-spectrum, quinolone antibiotic. Its bactericidal action is due interference with the bacterial enzyme, DNA gyrase. It is active against a variety of Gram negative and Gram positive micro-organisms.


Ciprofloxacin tablets are well absorbed from the gut, with an absolute bioavailability approaching 70%. Maximum serum concentrations are achieved 1-2 hours after oral dosing. Ciprofloxacin is widely distributed throughout the body and 20-40% of the drug is protein bound. Serum elimination half life in normal healthy patients is about 4 hours. Ciprofloxacin is partly metabolised (metabolites have less antimicrobial activity than the parent drug) and excreted in the urine. 40-50% of the oral dose is excreted unchanged in the urine, and urinary excretion is essentially complete within 24 hours. 20-35% of the oral dose is recovered from the faeces within 5 days.

Half life is only slightly increased with mild renal dysfunction, and dose adjustment is unnecessary. In patients with severe renal impairment (e.g, Creatinine clearance < 20 mL/min) the half life is almost doubled and doses should be adjusted accordingly.

Dose advice


  • Urinary tract infections: 250 mg every 12 hours. Complicated infections caused by pathogens with poor susceptibility may be treated with 500 mg every 12 hours.
  • Bronchial infections, skin and connective tissue infections: 500 mg every 12 hours. Complicated infections may be treated with 750 mg every 12 hours.
  • Bone and joint infections: 750 mg every 12 hours.
  • Gastroenteritis (infectious diarrhoea) 500 mg every 12 hours.
  • Acute, uncomplicated gonorrhoeal urethritis: 250 mg stat.
  • Chronic bacterial prostatitis 250-500 mg every 12 hours.

Inhalational anthrax (postexposure):

  • Adults: 500 mg every 12 hours
  • Children: 15 mg/kg (< 500 mg per dose) every 12 hours.
  • Impaired renal function: Dosage adjustment is recommended for patients with compromised kidney function.
  • Creatinine clearance 31-60 mL/min/1.73 m2: maximum oral daily dose 1 g per day. Creatinine clearance

Common side effects

  • Local reactions at the intravenous site.
  • Nausea, diarrhoea, vomiting, epigastric pain, bad taste, difficulty swallowing drug, gastric irritation
  • Headache, dizziness, light headedness. Ciprofloxacin can impair responsiveness and alter ability to drive or operate machinery.
  • Rash, itch, vaginitis.
  • Agitation, restlessness, tremor, weakness.

Uncommon side effects

  • Oral and cutaneous candidiasis
  • Photosensitivity
  • Perspiration
  • Flushing
  • Papules
  • Petechiae
  • Vasculitis
  • Erythema multiforme/Stevens Johnson syndrome
  • Hyperpigmentation
  • Haemorrhagic bullae
  • Anorexia
  • Constipation
  • Ileus
  • Jaundice
  • Lethargy
  • Confusion
  • Somnolence
  • Irritability
  • Anxiety
  • Depression
  • Weakness
  • Paranoia
  • Twitching
  • Hot flushes
  • Migraine
  • Angina
  • Disturbed vision, hearing, taste or smell
  • Gout flare-up
  • Dysuria
  • Changes in haematology and hepatic and renal biochemistry laboratory parameters
  • Severe
  • Cardiovascular collapse, cardiopulmonary arrest, syncope, arrhythmia, hypertension
  • Hepatic necrosis
  • Intestinal perforation
  • Pancreatitis
  • Gastrointestinal bleeding
  • Hallucinations
  • Confusion
  • Convulsive seizures
  • Psychotic reaction
  • Depersonalisation
  • Increased intracranial pressure
  • Serum sickness-like reaction
  • Dyspnoea, pulmonary embolism, pleural effusion
  • Interstitial nephritis
  • Renal failure
  • Acidosis
  • Candiduria
  • Haemorrhagic cystitis
  • Urethral bleeding

For further information talk to your doctor.

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Posted On: 2 September, 2004
Modified On: 14 May, 2016

Created by: myVMC