Are you a Health Professional? Jump over to the doctors only platform. Click Here
 

Milk and Milk Products (Dairy Products)

dairy products
 

Milk and milk products
Introduction

Children and adolescents should be encouraged to consume milk products because this is the period of their lives in which they are building their peak bone mass and developing lifelong habits. This article highlights the benefits of milk and milk products, as well as common misconceptions.


What are dairy products?

A production plant for processing dairy products is called a dairy or a dairy factory. Dairy products are generally defined as food products that are produced from milk. They are rich sources of energy. Raw milk for processing generally comes from cows, but occasionally from other mammals such as goats, sheep, and water buffalo. Water is the main constituent of milk (about 90%).


Sources of dairy products

Milk of various types (including whole milk, skim milk, buttermilk), yoghurt, cheese (e.g. Swiss cheese, cheddar cheese, cottage cheese), and ice cream are dairy products. Of all milk products, milk, yoghurt and cheese are the best sources of calcium.


Nutritional value of dairy

Dairy products and alternatives such as calcium-fortified soy products are nutritious foods, and provide benefit when consumed as part of a nutritionally balanced diet which includes all of the 5 food groups:

  • Breads and cereals;
  • Vegetables and fruits;
  • Dairy products/alternatives;
  • Meat/chicken/fish/alternatives; and
  • A small amount of fats and oils.

The functions of a food are served specifically through its nutritionally important components, including proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, minerals, vitamins and water. Cow’s milk is the preferred choice for most people. It provides 67 kilocalories and has a protein content of 3.2 grams per 100 millilitres. Milk proteins include casein (about 80%) and whey (about 20%). Whey has a higher nutritional value than casein.

Once fat and casein have been removed from milk, it consists mainly of whey, which contains the soluble milk salts, milk sugar and the remainder of the milk proteins. Whey proteins consist of a number of specialised proteins, the most important being beta lactoglobulin (50% of whey) and lactoglobulin.

Milk proteins have a high biological value but, unlike egg proteins, they lack sulphur-containing amino acids. The proteins in cow’s milk have balanced amino acid profiles and good digestibility, making it the obvious choice when it comes to feeding the family. Casein in cow’s milk combines with calcium to form caseinogen. A higher proportion of calcium and casein in cow’s milk makes it more difficult to digest than human milk. Some people cannot drink fresh milk because they are lactose intolerant, but can consume sour milk because it contains less lactose.

The nutrient composition of milk makes it a time-tested liquid that is indispensable for the maintenance of optimal nutrition, especially for the young. The major nutrients in milk aside from protein include the following:


Fat

Milk and milk products also contain fat. Cow’s milk contains fat that is in the form of glycerides. The fat in cow’s milk is a poor source of essential fatty acids.

The fat content of milk varies:

  • Whole milk contains 3.9 g fat per 100 ml,
  • Semi-skimmed milk provides 1.7 g fat per 100 ml
  • Skim milk provides 0.2 g fat per 100 ml
  • 1% milk, a blend of skimmed and semi-skimmed milk, has recently become available. It contains 1 g fat or less per 100 ml.


Carbohydrates

The main carbohydrate in milk is a disaccharide called lactose. It is made up of two simple sugars – glucose and galactose – and is sweeter than sucrose (found in cane sugar). Lactose supports the absorption of calcium and phosphorus and the synthesis of some B complex vitamins in the small intestine. In the human body, an intestinal enzyme called lactase digests lactose. Some people are unable to produce enough lactase, inhibiting lactose digestion. This undigested lactose is then broken down in the large intestine by bacteria, causing the formation of gas, bloating, pain and diarrhoea. This condition is called lactose intolerance.

Lactose intolerance is the inability to digest significant amounts of lactose, the major sugar found in milk. Lactose intolerance poses a problem for some people, but can be managed. People who have trouble digesting lactose should avoid dairy products that are not compatible with their system. Many people with this condition can enjoy milk, ice cream and other such products if they eat them in small amounts or eat other food at the same time. Additionally, lactase liquid or tablets can help digest the lactose.

Lactase deficient individuals may tolerate milk with cereals or cooked as custard more than liquid milk. Some dairy foods contain less lactose than others, and may be better for people who suffer from lactose intolerance. These include:

  • Fermented milk products, including some yoghurts, mature cheeses (like cheddar cheese) and butter, generally pose no problems.
  • Since heating breaks down some of the lactose, heated milk products such as evaporated milk may be preferred to unheated foods.


Vitamins and minerals

Milk and milk products are an excellent source of vitamins and minerals, particularly calcium. Milk has significant amounts of vitamin A and B vitamins such as thiamine, riboflavin and nicotinic acid, but is a poor source of vitamin C and vitamin E. It also contains vitamin B12.

The important minerals in milk are calcium, phosphorus, sodium and potassium. It is, however, a poor source of iron. Calcium is a mineral that the body needs for numerous functions, including building and maintaining bones and teeth, blood clotting, the transmission of nerve impulses, and regulation of the heart‘s rhythm.

Calcium Intake Calculator
How much calcium do you consume?
Is this for a male, female or infant?
Male Female Infant
What is your age in years?
Food SourceAmountCalcium (mg)Number of Serves

Dairy beverages

Milk- cow‘s (reduced fat 1.5%)250ml263
Milk- cow‘s (regular fat)250ml245
Milk- cow‘s, chocolate flavoured (calcium enriched)250ml500
Milk- cow‘s, flavoured250ml283
Milk- cow‘s, liquid (reduced fat 1.5%)250ml352
Milk- cow‘s, liquid (reduced fat 2.5%, calcium enriched)250ml500
Milk- cow‘s, liquid (regular fat, vitamin enriched)250ml367.5
Milk- cow‘s, powdered (regular)100 grams875
Milk- cow‘s, powdered (skim)100 grams1250
Milk- evaporated (full cream)250ml638
Milk evaporated (skim <0.5% fat)250ml615

Dairy substitute beverages

- Chocolate, regular1(300ml) carton334
- Chocolate, reduced fat250ml352

Yoghurt

Milk- goat‘s, powdered100 grams978
Milk- goat‘s, liquid250ml275
Milk- rice (calcium enriched)250ml315
Milk- sheeps- liquid250ml483
Milk- soy (flavoured)250ml293
Milk- soy (reduced fat)250ml302
Milk- soy- unflavoured (full cream, calcium enriched)250ml400
Milk- soy- unflavoured (reduced fat <0.5%, calcium enriched)250ml340
Milk- soy- unflavoured (reduced fat 1.5%, calcium enriched)250ml340

Cheese

- Cheddar40g310
- Edam40g360
- Parmesan40g460

Ice cream

- regular100g119
- low fat100g146

Meat

- Beef, Steak grilled100g6
- Lamb Chop, midloin, grilled100g8

Chicken

- roasted/skin100g13
- roasted/no skin100g14

Other

Salmon - grilled100g21
Eggs - boiled1 large25
Broccoli100g31
Apricots- dried50g33
Almonds50g117
Baked Beans1/2 cup47
Spinach/Silverbeet100g53
Apples1 medium8
Oranges1 medium38
Bread- wholemeal1 slice24
Total calcium for other foods not listed above 

How much calcium do you need daily to maintain good health?

Evaluation

You need to increase your calcium intake by mg to meet your Recommended Daily Intake (RDI) of mg.

Evaluation

This is a healthy amount of calcium when compared to your Recommended Daily Intake (RDI) of mg.

Evaluation

The upper limit of daily calcium intake is 2,500mg. Speak to your doctor or health professional on how to cut down your intake to the appropriate level.

Evaluation

Up until 6 months of age infants should be fed only breast milk or infant formula.

Food Standards Australia and New Zealand.@AUSNUT 2007- Australian Nutrition Reference Database. 2007. (cited April 7, 2011) Available from: http://www.foodstandards.gov.au/consumerinformation/ausnut2007/

Disclaimer

This calculator includes a small number of foods that are rich calcium sources, or that are commonly eaten. While the calculator may give an estimate of your calcium intake, it should not be relied upon for an accurate assessment of dietary calcium intake. For a comprehensive dietary assessment, see an Accredited Practising Dietitian. This information will be collected for educational purposes, however it will remain anonymous.


Benefits of milk and other dairy products

Milk and milk productsMilk and dairy products are the major food source of calcium and protein in most developed countries, including Australia. One litre of milk can provide approximately 1200 mg of calcium, representing more than the daily requirement for calcium. Calcium in milk is in a bioavailable form and is readily absorbed. The absorption of calcium is enhanced by vitamin A and lactose.

Adequate intake of calcium is necessary for growth in childhood, and for the prevention of diseases like osteoporosis in adulthood. Research evidence points to an association between decreased calcium intake and osteoporosis.

Calcium is also needed in the diet to control hypertension. A number of studies have reported an inverse association between dietary calcium intake and blood pressure. The most powerful research strategy is the randomised controlled trial. Findings from such clinical trials indicate that an increased calcium intake lowers blood pressure and the risk of hypertension. However, another trial in which researchers followed 193 men and women split into two groups, one taking a placebo and the other taking calcium carbonate tablets twice daily, reported that calcium had no significant effect on blood pressure.

Despite its nutritional value, some people are sceptical of milk consumption, mainly because of the fat and cholesterol content, and the risk of atherosclerosis (clogging of the arteries) or coronary heart disease (CHD). However, there is insufficient scientific evidence to support this caution. In 2004, Dairy Australia Seminar Series, a review of the epidemiological evidence on milk and cardiovascular disease presented by Professor Peter C Elwood, showed that milk drinkers have a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to those who drink little or no milk, despite the fact that most of the milk drank was regular fat milk. The review further concluded that there was no evidence of an increase in vascular disease; rather, the incidence of stroke and heart disease was about 15% lower in the subjects with the highest intakes of milk. Evidence from cohort studies suggests that though milk consumption raises cholesterol level, milk is protective against vascular disease.

The biggest setback to using milk and dairy products is that the public in general, and teenagers and women in particular, tend to avoid milk and dairy products because of their fat content.

A 300 ml glass of full cream milk contains 10 g of fat, of which 6.3 g is saturated fat, and can contribute about 770 kJ of energy. In contrast, a 300 ml glass of skim milk only contains 0.6 g of fat (a reduction of 94%), 0.3 g of saturated fat, and 440 kJ (a reduction of 43%). Therefore, consuming skim milk and low fat yoghurt instead of whole milk will allay the fear of health risks associated with dairy fat.

Body Mass Index (BMI) Calculator
Enter your height and weight below to find out your BMI.
What does this mean?

This information will be collected for educational purposes, however it will remain anonymous.

It has been documented that, in most countries, milk consumption has fallen over the past 20–25 years. A reduction in milk consumption may impact on nutritional needs, especially of calcium. It appears that the positive nutritional and health contributing values of dairy products far outweigh concerns regarding cholesterol.

Like any other food, overconsumption may be associated with health risks. The key word in the choice and consumption of any food is moderation. At moderate levels, calcium and dairy products have benefits beyond bone health, including possibly lowering the risk of high blood pressure and colon cancer.

 


How much milk is needed?

A daily intake of three glasses of skim milk, over cereal at breakfast, in hot beverages and in milk dishes like custard, and one or more portions of low fat yoghurt or low fat cottage cheese, is sufficient to meet your milk requirements. The US Department of Agriculture’s Food Guide Pyramid recommends that individuals two years and older eat 2–3 servings of dairy products per day.

A serving is equal to:

  • 1 cup (8 fl oz; 250 ml) of milk
  • 8 oz (250 g) of yoghurt
  • 1.5 oz (40 g) of natural cheese (e.g. cheddar)
  • 2.0 oz (60 g) of processed cheese


Who should avoid milk?

It is generally recommended that children, pregnant women, older people and those who are unwell avoid unpasteurised milk and milk products. Individuals who are allergic or intolerant to milk and dairy products may try to avoid them. For such people, eating dairy products such as yoghurt in small quantities may be helpful.


Storage

Milk and milk products should be stored in a refrigerator to slow down the growth of micro-organisms, such as mould on cheese. Milk, cheese and yoghurt should be stored and used by the date specified on the packaging.


Article kindly reviewed by:

The DAA WA Oncology Interest Group
and
Food4Health (Helen Baker Dietitian-APD)

More Information:

Dairy For more information on dairy products, including information on nutrition for specific age groups and dairy consumption with certain health conditions, as well as some useful tools, videos, recipes and factsheets, see Dairy.


Educational Videos:

References

  1. Rusoff LL. The role of milk in modern nutrition. Bordens Rev Nutr Res. 1964; 25:17-49.
  2. Rusoff LL. Milk: Its nutritional value at a low cost for people of all ages. J Dairy Sci. 1970; 53(9): 1296-302.
  3. Milk and dairy products [online]. London: British Nutrition Foundation. 2004 [cited 15 December 2007]. Available from URL: http://www.nutrition.org.uk/ home.asp? siteId=43 §ionId=427 &subSectionId=322 &parentSection=299 &which=1.
  4. Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine [eds]. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D and Fluoride. Washington DC: National Academies Press, 1997.
  5. Rusoff LL. Calcium-osteoporosis and blood pressure. J Dairy Sci. 1987; 70(2): 407-13.
  6. Gueguen L, Pointillart A. The bioavailability of dietary calcium. J Am Coll Nutr. 2000; 19(2 Suppl): 119S-36S.
  7. National Institute of Arthritis Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Osteoporosis: Cause, treatment, prevention. NIH Pub. No. 83-2226, 1983.
  8. Heaney RP, Gallagher JC, Johnston CC, Neer R, Parfitt AM, Wheldon GD. Calcium nutrition and bone health in the elderly. Am J Clin Nutr. 1982; 36(5 Suppl): 986-1013.
  9. McCarron DA, Morris CD, Cole C. Dietary calcium in human hypertension. Science. 1982; 217: 267-9.
  10. Ackley S, Barrett-Connor E, Suarez L. Dairy products, calcium and blood pressure. Am J Clin Nutr. 1983; 38(3): 457-61.
  11. Harlan WR, Hull AL, Schmoulder R, Landis JR, Thompson FE, Larkin FA. Blood pressure and nutrition in adults: The national health and nutrition survey. Am J Epidemiol. 1984; 120(1): 17-28.
  12. McCarron DA, Morris CD, Henry AJ, Stanton JL. Blood pressure and nutrient intake in the United States. Science. 1984; 224: 1392-8.
  13. Purwar M, Kulkarni H, Motghare V, Dhole S. Calcium supplementation and prevention of pregnancy induced hypertension. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 1996; 22(5): 425-30.
  14. Allender PS, Cutler JA, Follmann D, Cappuccio FP, Pryer J, Elliott P. Dietary calcium and blood pressure. Ann Intern Med. 1996; 124(9): 825-31.
  15. Bucher HC, Cook RJ, Guyatt GH, Lang JD, Cook DJ, et al. Effects of dietary calcium supplementation on blood pressure. JAMA. 1996; 275(13): 1016-22.
  16. Bostick RM, Fosdick L, Grandits GA, Grambsch P, Gross M, Louis TA. Effect of calcium supplementation on serum cholesterol and blood pressure. Arch Fam Med. 2000; 9(1): 31-40.
  17. Rusoff LL. Nutrition/heart disease, facts and fallacies. Assoc. Food Drug Offic. Q. Bull. 48: 68. 1984.
  18. Elwood P, Krauss R, Tremblay A, Elmer P [presenters]. Advances in dairy nutrition seminars: Dairy – The Hearty Choice? Dairy Australia. Seminar on 23 November 2004: Melbourne, Australia.
  19. Elwood PC, Pickering JE, Hughes J, Fehily AM, Ness AR. Milk drinking, ischaemic heart disease and ischaemic stroke II. Evidence from cohort studies. Eur J Clin Nutrition. 2004; 58(5): 718-24.
  20. US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 1994-96 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals and 1994-96 Diet and Health Knowledge Survey and Related Materials. Washington DC: US Department of Agriculture, 1998.
  21. DEFRA. Family Food: A Report on the 2002-3 Expenditure and Food Survey. London: The Stationery Office, 2004.
  22. Martinez ME, Willett W. Calcium, vitamin D, and colorectal cancer: A review of the epidemiologic evidence. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1998; 7(2): 163-8.
  23. Hyman J, Baron JA, Dain BJ, Sandler RS, Haile RW, et al. Dietary and supplemental calcium and the recurrence of colorectal adenomas. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1998; 7(4): 291-5.
  24. Cappuccio FP, Elliott P, Allender PS, Pryer J, Follman DA, Cutler JA. Epidemiologic association between dietary calcium intake and blood pressure: A meta-analysis of published data. Am J Epidemiol. 1995; 142(9): 935-45.
  25. Healthy Food Pyramid [online]. Nutrition Australia. [cited 15 December 2007]. Available at URL: http://www.nutritionaustralia.org/ Food_Facts/ Fact_Sheets/ about_the_healthy _eating_pyramid.asp
  26. NHRMC. Dietary guidelines for children and adolescents in Australia: Incorporating the infant feeding guidelines for health workers [online]. Commonwealth of Australia. 2003 [cited 15 December 2007]. Available from URL: http://www.nhmrc.gov.au/ publications/ synopses/ _files/ n34.pdf

Dates

Posted On: 14 January, 2008
Modified On: 30 December, 2010
Reviewed On: 28 March, 2008

 


Tags



Created by: myVMC