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H-B-Vax II

Generic Name: Hepatitis B vaccine
Product Name: H-B-Vax II

Indication

H-B-Vax II is used for immunisation against infection caused by the Hepatitis B virus (HBV). It is recommended in all adults who are at risk of contracting the virus, especially:
- healthcare workers
- sex industry workers
- inmates and staff of institutions
- travellers
Hepatitis B vaccination has recently been added to the routine immunisation schedule for all newborn babies. Adolescents who have received this vaccine as a baby do not require it again.
Individuals who have HBV antibodies as a result of previous infection with the virus will receive no extra benefit from the vaccine.

Action

H-B-Vax II is a vaccine against the Hepatitis B virus (HBV). This vaccine works by exposing the body to a small, inactivated part of the virus, which stimulates the body¡¦s immune system to develop antibodies to fight it. In the event that the person is infected with HBV in the future, the body is able to mount a rapid immune response and the person does not develop the disease. Vaccines cannot be 100% protective, but H-B-Vax II gives 10-year effective protection against the development of Hepatitis B in 95% of people.

Dose advice

H-B-Vax II is for intramuscular injection. The ideal injection site is the deltoid muscle, or the front of the thigh in children and infants. Patients at risk of bleeding following intramuscular injection may receive H-B-Vax II subcutaneously.
A sterile syringe and needle should be used for every patient.
Three injections are required, the first dose, the second 1 month later and the third 6 months after the second.
Adults
- use Adult Formulation
- 3 x 10Æ?Ýg
Adult dialysis and predialysis patients
- use Dialysis Formulation
- 3 x 40Æ?Ýg
Children and adolescents 0-19 years
- use Paediatric Formulation
- 3 x 5Æ?Ýg
Adolescents 11-15 years (alternative regime)
- use Adult Formulation
- 2 x 10Æ?Ýg
The duration of H-B-Vax II¡¦s protective effect has not been adequately studied, but other HBV vaccination programs require a booster injection (singe dose) after 10 years.
Infants born to HBV positive mothers
- one 0.5ml dose of HBV immune globulin at birth
- 3 x 5Æ?Ýg doses of H-B-Vax II as normal, the first dose given 1 week after birth
- test for HBV surface antigen and antibodies 12-15 months after birth to monitor success of regime
Adults exposed to HBV
- 0.6mg/kg dose of HBV immune globulin as soon as possible following exposure
- usual dosage regime of H-B-Vax II beginning within seven days of exposure, using a different intramuscular site
- this regime is a guideline, no prospective studies have been done on the subject

Schedule

S4

Common side effects

H-B-Vax II is well tolerated. The following effects may occasionally be seen at the site of infection:
- pain
- inflammation
- redness
- itching
Some other adverse effects reported include:
- fatigue
- fever
- malaise
- nausea
- diarrhoea
- headache
- pharyngitis
The side effect profile is slightly different in children, with infants more likely to suffer irritability, fever, cold symptoms and vomiting. Young children also experienced fever, cold symptoms, viral infections, diarrhoea, rhinitis and headache.

Uncommon side effects

Some side effects reported less often include:
- sweating
- achiness
- sensation of warmth, chills
- vomiting
- abdominal pain/cramps
- decreased appetite
- rhinitis
- cough
- vertigo/dizziness/lightheadedness
- rash
- hives
- joint/muscle aches/back ache/neck stiffness
- swollen lymph nodes
- insomnia
- earache
- pain on urination
- lowered blood pressure
- hair loss
- peripheral neuropathy (Bell¡¦s palsy/Guillain-Barre syndrome)
- tinnitus

 

For further information talk to your doctor.

Dates

Posted On: 22 July, 2003
Modified On: 22 July, 2003


Created by: myVMC