Generic Name: Cyclophosphamide
Product Name: Endoxan
Endoxan is a drug used to treat various cancerous diseases (breast and ovarian cancers, and leukaemia), disorders of the immune system (such as systemic lupus erythematosus and vasculitis). Endoxan is also used to prevent transplant rejection in some instances. If you are unsure why Endoxan has been prescribed for you, contact your doctor.
Endoxan is a type of drug known as a cytotoxic agent. It works by killing rapidly dividing cells, which make it particularly useful in the treatment of certain cancers and disorders of the immune system. Unfortunately, Endoxan can also target normal rapidly dividing cells in the body, which can result in unwanted side effects such as nausea and vomiting, and hair loss.
- Endoxan is available only on prescription through your doctor.
- Always tell your doctor you are being treated with Endoxan before being prescribed other medication or purchasing over the counter medicines.
- Endoxan should not be used in patients with certain medical conditions – be sure to tell your doctor if you suffer from any medical conditions before being prescribed Endoxan.
- Endoxan should not be used in patients who are pregnant (ADEC Pregnancy Category D) or breastfeeding – always tell your doctor you are pregnant or breast feeding before using Endoxan.
- Report signs of infection or unusual bleeding to your doctor. Avoid people with infections while undergoing treatment with Endoxan.
- Drink plenty of fluids and urinate frequently while undergoing treatment with Endoxan.
- Report any signs of bladder irritation to your doctor.
Common side effects
All medicines may cause side effects. Your doctor has weighed out the risks against the benefits of you taking Endoxan. Consult your doctor if any of the below side effects concern you.
The following side effects occur in 1% or more of patients taking Endoxan:
- Nausea and vomiting
- Appetite loss
- Hair loss – regrowth of hair may be of a different colour or texture
- Nasal congestion (following injection only)
- Delayed wound healing
- Inflammation of the bladder – report bladder irritation or bleeding on urination to your doctor as soon as possible
- Disorders of the blood – report frequent or persistent infections to your doctor, including signs and symptoms of fever, sore throat, unusual bleeding or bruising, and fatigue.
- Infertility – there is a risk of sterility following treatment with Endoxan and this should be discussed with your doctor.
Uncommon side effects
The following side effects occur in 0.1 to 1% of patients taking Endoxan:
- Darkening of skin and fingernails.
- Taste disturbances (metallic taste or loss of taste).
Consult your doctor if you experience any of the above symptoms, or any other unusual or abnormal symptoms that concern you.
- Australian Medicines Handbook 2007, Adelaide, Pharmaceutical Society of Australia, 2007.
- MIMS Online. [Monograph online] MIMS Australia Pty Ltd 2003. [Cited December 9, 2007]. Available from: [URL Link]
- Lazo J, Gilman A, Brunton L et al. Goodman & Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 11th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2006.
- Golan DE, Tashjian AH, Armstrong EJ, Galanter JM, Armstrong AW, Arnout RA, Rose HS. Principles of Pharmacology; The Pathophysiologic Basis of Drug Therapy. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005.
For further information talk to your doctor.