Generic Name: Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride
Product Name: Ciproxin
Ciproxin is an antibiotic agent used in the treatment of the following infections (see Action Description for susceptible organisms):
– urinary tract infections
– gonococcal urethritis and cervicitis
– infective diarrhoea
– bronchial infections
– skin and skin structure infections
– bone and joint infections
– chronic bacterial prostatitis
Ciproxin is one of the agents useful against anthrax of the inhalational type.
In the treatment of any infection, it is important to isolate the bacteria and its antibacterial susceptibilities if possible before commencing treatment.
Ciproxin has a broad spectrum of antibiotic activity. Unlike many antibiotics, it actually kills bacteria, rather than just stopping them replicating. It does this by entering the bacteria and interfering with an enzyme involved in their replication. It is useful against a number of bacteria, more Gram-negative than Gram-positive.
There are a large number of susceptible Gram-negative organisms, including those well known for causing urinary tract infections, such as E. coli. It is also useful against the bugs that cause food poisoning, including Salmonella and Shigella. Ciproxin can also kill some of the bacteria that cause upper respiratory tract infections, namely Streptococcus pneumonia and Haemophilus influenzae. It also has activity against Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the bug responsible for gonorrhoea, although some resistance is developing. Ciproxin can also kill the well-known Staph aureus, including the more resistant MRSA, also known as Golden Staph.
Determination of dose in patients being treated with antibiotics must take the following into account:
– severity of infection
– nature of infection
– susceptibility of infecting organism to antibiotic being used
– integrity of patientâ??s natural defences
– patientâ??s renal function.
Duration of treatment depends on severity of infection. The minimum recommended treatment time is 2 days after the signs and symptoms of the infection have disappeared. This makes the usual duration of treatment 7-14 days. It must be remembered, however, that severe and complicated infections may require prolonged treatment, even up to 6 weeks.
Urinary tract infections
– 250mg every 12 hours
– 500mg/12hours may be required for complicated infections caused by less susceptible organisms (eg: Enterococcus faecalis)
Bronchial infections, skin and skin structure infections
– 500mg every 12 hours
– 750mg/12hours may be required for severe or complicated infections
Bone or joint infection
– 750mg every 12 hours
– treatment may be necessary for 4-6 weeks or even longer
– 500mg every 12 hours
– usually requires treatment for no more than 5 days
Acute, uncomplicated gonorrhoea (urethritis)
– one single 250mg dose
Chronic bacterial prostate infection
– 250-500mg every 12 hours
– treatment usually takes 14-28 days
Inhalational anthrax (post-exposure)
– 500mg every 12 hours as soon as possible following exposure
– 15mg/kg every 12 hours
– single dose should not exceed 500mg
Treatment for inhalational anthrax exposure should continue for 60 days.
Gram-positive organisms are generally less sensitive to Ciprofloxacin than are Gram-negative organisms. For this reason, higher doses are generally needed to treat infections with Gram-positive organisms. For example, 500mg of Ciproxin can be given as often as 8-hourly if necessary.
In certain infections where an abscess may have formed, it may be necessary to use surgical drainage along with antibiotic treatment.
Impaired renal function
– dosage adjustment is required in patients with impaired renal function
– this will be determined using renal function parameters
Common side effects
Ciproxin is generally well tolerated, however these side effects may be experienced:
– nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain
– agitation, restlessness or tremor
– rash or itching
– headache, dizziness, lightheadedness
– bad taste
Uncommon side effects
– antibiotic associated diarrhoea has rarely been reported with use of Ciproxin, but if diarrhoea commences following administration of the drug, cease taking it and see your doctor
– photosensitivity â?? patients on Ciproxin should avoid direct sun exposure
– there are a large number of possible, but uncommon side effects â?? if you experience anything untoward whilst on Ciproxin, see your doctor immediately
For further information talk to your doctor.